NEET 2021 Syllabus: NEET UG 2021 exam is scheduled to be conducted in the month of September this year. Be thorough with the NEET Biology syllabus before you start your preparations, because it has 50% weightage. This time, biology has been divided into two sections, i.e., Botany and Zoology. We have listed below the NEET botany syllabus and NEET zoology syllabus. Chemistry comprises Organic chemistry, Inorganic chemistry and Physical chemistry. You can score very good in chemistry, but you have to be thorough with the NEET chemistry syllabus, before you begin. Physics sounds tougher, but a systematic preparation can help you overcome the fears. Follow the NEET Physics syllabus to ensure you do well in Physics too.
Same as previous year, the NEET syllabus includes a total of 97 chapters covering all the three NEET subjects i.e., PCB (Physics, Chemistry and Biology).
The NEET 2021 syllabus by NTA is primarily based on the syllabus of class 11 and 12 of CBSE and various State Boards. The objective of the NEET exam is to test you on the portions and topics that you have prepared in your class 11 and 12. On comparing the NEET syllabus with your board syllabus, you may find some additions and reductions. However, these differences are minimal.
While preparing for the exam, you need to strictly follow this official NEET 2021 syllabus. Ensure that you do not leave any topic. You should thoroughly prepare each chapters’ questions and study material as per latest NEET syllabus, to be able to crack NEET and get a top rank.
Check out below to get complete topic wise NEET 2021 syllabus for all the three subjects in NEET i.e., Physics, Chemistry and Biology (Botany & Zoology).
Choose which NEET subject’s syllabus you wish to read in the table below:
NEET Biology Syllabus is divided into two branches that you need to study. These are namely - Botany and Zoology. Botany is the branch of biology that deals with plant life. While, Zoology is related to animal biology.
As per the official syllabus, only the topics taught to you in both class 11 and 12 will be asked in the NEET exam.
Biology is a very vast subject. So, for preparing biology for NEET, you should know the extent to which you need to know the concepts. This topic wise breakup of each chapter is provided by NTA in the official biology syllabus for NEET 2021.
Class 11 Biology Syllabus
The biology syllabus for NEET includes all the five units of class 11 NCERT Book, which are further divided into separate chapters. Complete class 11 syllabus for NEET 2021 biology subject is given below:
UNIT I: Diversity in Living World
- What is living?; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life and Taxonomy & Systematics. Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy. Binomial nomenclature. Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
- Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups. Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
- Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category). Angiosperms - classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
- Salient features and classification of animals - nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
- Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
- Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall. Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids. Micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
- Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
- B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
UNIT IV: Plant Physiology
- Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
- Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
- Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
- Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
- Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
UNIT V: Human Physiology
- Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
- Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
- Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system- Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
- Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
- Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
- Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
- Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease). (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)
Class 12 Biology Syllabus
The NEET syllabus for biology for class 12 includes all the five units of class 12 NCERT book. These units are further divided into 16 chapters. Complete class 12 NEET 2021 biology syllabus subject is given below:
UNIT I: Reproduction
- Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
- Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
- Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution
- Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
- Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
- Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
- Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
- Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
- Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications
- Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
- Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
UNIT V: Ecology and environment
- Organisms and environment:
- Habitat and niche;
- Population and ecological adaptations;
- Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism;
- Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
- Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition;
- Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous);
- Ecological succession;
- Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
- Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
- Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
Tips to prepare NEET Biology Syllabus
Half of the total questions in NEET are asked from Biology subject. So, biology is one of the most important subjects when you prepare for NEET.
Biology is definitely a scoring subject, where you can easily get about 340 marks Biology is definitely a scoring subject. You can easily get about 340 marks but requires a lot of special attention. You need to be through with each chapter in the syllabus and continuously revise the class 11 and 12 NEET portions.
Biology does not require a lot of calculations. So, attempting the questions is easy if you have a good grip on the concepts.
For medical students, this section in the NEET exam is very important to achieve a good score. Good students can achieve up to 340 marks out of 360 marks in the exam.
So, if you want to achieve a good score in NEET, you need to target at least 300-340 marks in NEET.
NEET Chemistry Syllabus is divided into inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. As per the NTA’s direction, only the chapters you study in class 11 and 12 will be asked in the NEET exam.
So, for preparing the chemistry syllabus for NEET, you need to know which chapters that you need to study. Below is the chapter wise breakup of each chapter of chemistry for class 11 and 12 provided by NTA. This is strictly as per the official NTA chemistry syllabus for NEET 2021.
Class 11 Syllabus for Chemistry
The syllabus includes all the fourteen units of class 11 NCERT book. The complete class 11 chemistry syllabus for NEET 2021 is given below:
UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
- General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
- Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
- Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
UNIT II: Structure of Atom
Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.
UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.
UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
- Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
- Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
UNIT VI: Thermodynamics
- First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
- Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.
- Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.
UNIT VII: Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium- Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.
UNIT IX: Hydrogen
Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides- ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;
UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
- Group I and group 2 elements:
- General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
- Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
- Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
- Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements
- General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
- Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
- General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
- Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.
UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
- General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
- Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
- Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons
- Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
- Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
- Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
- Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Class 12 Syllabus for Chemistry
The NEET syllabus for class 12 chemistry includes all the sixteen units of class 12 NCERT book. Complete class 12 syllabus for NEET 2021 chemistry subject is given below:
UNIT I: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
UNIT II: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.
UNIT III: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
UNIT V: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
UNIT VII: p- Block Elements
- Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
- Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
- Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
- Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements
- General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
- Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
- Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT, CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).
UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
- Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
- Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
- Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
- Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
- Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
- Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.
UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
- Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
- Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
- Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
- Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
- Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
UNIT XIV: Biomolecules
- Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
- Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
- Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
- Vitamins- Classification and function.
- Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
UNIT XV: Polymers
Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life
- Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
- Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
- Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Tips to prepare NEET Chemistry Syllabus
NEET Chemistry topics are easy to understand, but deep knowledge of the concepts is required for preparing both organic and inorganic chemistry topics.
Especially, you need to have a good understanding of chemistry reactions and mechanisms and the method of deriving them. They are an important part of NEET syllabus for chemistry. You should revise at least 5-6 mechanisms and reactions daily.
Also, it has been observed that questions from topics such as GOC (General Organic Chemistry) and Basic properties of organic compounds are asked frequently in NEET chemistry section, so you should give it a through revision before appearing in the exam.
You can spend a little more time on these topics. It can help you improve your score in chemistry section of NEET exam with minimal effort.
Similar to biology and chemistry, in NEET Physics syllabus is based on the chapters you have studied in class 11 and 12. However, most medical students find Physics syllabus difficult. This is because Physics requires conceptual understanding as well as knowledge of practical application, in form of practice.
As physics requires a lot of practice, you need to spend some additional time on revising chapters with smart notes for physics and practicing physics MCQs.
Below is the chapter wise breakup of each chapter in the NEET Physics syllabus for class 11 and 12 provided by NTA. This is strictly as pe the official syllabus for Physics for NTA NEET 2021.
Class 11 Physics Syllabus
The physics syllabus for NEET includes all the ten units of class 11 NCERT book. The complete list of topics for class 11 Physics for NEET 2021 is given below:
UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement
- Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
- Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
- Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
UNIT II: Kinematics
- Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
- Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
- Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
- Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.
- Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.
UNIT III: Laws of Motion
- Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
- Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
- Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).
UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power
- Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
- Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non- conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
- Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
- Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
- Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
UNIT VI: Gravitation
- Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
- Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.
UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter
- Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.
- Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
- Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
- Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.
- Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.
- Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.
UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics
- Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
- Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.
UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
- Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
- Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.
UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves
- Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
- Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.
Class 12 Physics Syllabus
The NEET 2021 syllabus for class 12 physics includes all the nine units of class 12 NCERT book. Complete class 12 for NEET 2021 physics syllabus is given below:
UNIT I: Electrostatics
- Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
- Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
- Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
- Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.
- Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.
UNIT II: Current Electricity
- Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.
- Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
- Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.
- Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
- Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
- Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
- Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
- Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
- Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
- Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.
- Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
- Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.
- Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
- AC generator and transformer.
UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves
- Need for displacement current.
- Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
- Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
UNIT VI: Optics
- Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
- Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
- Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.
- Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
- Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.
- Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
- Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
- Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
- Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
- Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.
- Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei
- Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
- Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
UNIT IX: Electronic Devices
- Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Tips to prepare NEET Physics Syllabus
Physics is a practical subject and requires a lot of practice. To prepare the NEET physics syllabus in an efficient manner and score more marks, you need to practice at least 150-200 questions on each chapter.
For quick understanding of the concept, you need to refer the NCERT books. After that, spend maximum time on practice of the questions. For each question you attempt wrong, ensure that you clear your doubts and learn the correct steps of solving the question. So that, next time you attempt the question, you are able to do so correctly and quickly.
With this strategy, you can easily target 150-160 marks out of 180 marks in NEET Physics section of NEET examination.
Important resources to prepare syllabus for NEET
If you are starting your preparations or are currently in class 11 or 12, you should thoroughly prepare the syllabus. For this, we have a list of best courses that can help you prepare and revise the topics in the quickest manner possible.
NEET Online Preparation Course (for class 12th students)
Specially designed course for students who only have one year to prepare for their NEET exams. It supports your learning and revision needs to cover entire two-year syllabus in the limited time available. You can easily prepare with the course and manage board exams as well.
NEET Online Repeater Dropper Course (Best course for NEET Repeaters and NEET droppers)
As a dropper you have already prepared the exam syllabus in the last two years. Now, you can quickly revise the chapters and practice the questions on each chapter in the syllabus to improve your NEET score.
NEET Question Bank (Comprehensive question bank of important NEET level questions)
NEET Chapter wise questions with instant doubt clearance. Unique features such as Revision Lists 1, 2 and 3 to prepare 3X faster. Check out the NEET Question Bank for faster preparations.
NEET Crash Course (for class 12th students)
NEET Chapter wise Study Notes, Chapter wise Question Bank, Online Test Series. The best NEET course for students who have limited time to prepare for NEET.
NEET Online Preparation Course (for class 11th students)
Specially designed course for students who only have two years to prepare NEET syllabus. You can sync your school preparation with the course. You can prepare each chapter for NEET long side your school studies and gain expertise in each chapter.
NEET 2021 Syllabus – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
|1.||What is the syllabus for NEET exam?|
|NEET exam syllabus comprises of Physics, Chemistry and Biology subjects. The topics that you prepare in class 11 and 12 in your school are asked as part of NEET UG syllabus. So, if you wish to appear in the NEET exam, you should prepare the entire official syllabus for NEET provided by NTA.|
|2.||Are there any changes in NEET 2021 syllabus?|
|No, there are no changes in NEET 2021 syllabus compared to previous year. While state board have reduced the syllabus, NTA is not planning to make any reduction in the syllabus for 2021 exam.|
|3.||Are there any changes in NEET 2022 syllabus?|
|Syllabus for NEET 2022 has not been released as yet. It is released once NTA publishes the official exam notification for NEET 2022 exam. However, it is expected that there will be no changes in the NEET syllabus for year 2022.|
|4.||Is there any reduction expected in NEET syllabus for 2021 due to reduction in CBSE and state boards syllabus?|
|No, the NEET 2021 syllabus will not be reduced. The CBSE and state boards have reduced the syllabus only for evaluation purpose. They have clarified that all topics of the syllabus need to be taught in school. However, the questions will not be asked from the removed topics.|
|5.||What is the total number of questions asked from syllabus for NEET 2021?|
|There are a total of 180 questions that will be asked from the NEET syllabus. These questions based on the latest syllabus will be single correct answer type questions. For each correct answer, you would be allotted four marks. And for every wrong answer, you one mark will be deducted.|
|6.||How many questions are asked in Biology section of NEET syllabus?|
|NEET Biology section will carry a total of 90 questions. These questions will be asked from the Zoology and Botany syllabus released by NTA for biology section for NEET.|